Monday, July 01, 2019

Let's Make Biogas from Straw - Rika Biogas Bioextrusion® - Anaerobic Diggestion

Why not make biogas from straw! New extrusion process it possible that a good feedstock can be created through the far more rapid development of anaerobic digestion of straw.


Research Sources for the Bioextrusion Process

The Bioextruder can create totally new feedstock options such as straw and desiccated grasses, or increase the biogas yield of traditional substrates such as maize or grass silage.

Depending on the solution required Rika Biogas Technologies can also specify equipment that can increase yields, speed up digestion and remove extraneous materials. These items normally sit in line with the extruder to produce a fully integrated feeding and feedstock processing solution that ultimately reduces your running costs. www.bioextruder.co.uk

Bioextrusion was Originated by LEHMANN

The Process of "Bioextrusion research and development was begun by LEHMANN®"

[Bioextrusion] leads to the formation of new bacteria stains and an improved C/N-ratio, because celluloses and hemicelluloses is decomposed and liberated from the embedding lignin layer. The 5- and 6-times sugar is faster available. Low-molecular and fast transforming substances like alcohol and other compounds develop.

The Fraunhofer institute IKTS in Dresden and LEHMANN Maschinenbau GmbH Jocketa have investigated to to what extent these difficult substrates are suitable for biogas production. via www.lehmann-maschinenbau.de

New insights into the impact of bioextrusion on biomass deconstruction using carbohydrate-binding modules

Lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable source of renewable substrate to produce low carbon footprint energy and materials. Biomass conversion is usually performed in two steps: a biomass pretreatment for improving cellulose accessibility followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. In this study we investigated the efficiency of a bioextrusion pretreatment (extrusion in the presence of cellulase enzyme) for production of reducing sugars from corn crop agricultural residues. Our results demonstrate that bioextrusion increased the reducing sugar conversion yield by at least 94% at high solid/liquid ratio (14%–40%). via www.sciencedirect.com

During the process the substrate is decomposed into its cell structure by a double-screw extruder with pressure with that high temperature and resulting of alternating load and multiple pressure/relaxation cycles in the machine. The biogas yield increases due to a better biochemical-availability and a strong enhanced surface area. The fiber is ideal culture medium of metabolizing bacteria.

This leads to the formation of new bacteria stains and an improved C/N-ratio, because celluloses and hemicelluloses is decomposed and liberated from the embedding lignin layer. The 5- and 6-times sugar is faster available. Low-molecular and fast transforming substances like alcohol and other compounds develop.

The sustainability and efficiency of biogas production is primarily determined by the substrate costs. It is necessary to exploit new substrates and to increase the energetic utilization ratio of the used substrates. Till now, highly lignocellulosic substrates or residues like straw or landscaping residue materials as "not or limited usable for biogas production".

The raw fibre is also degradable by bioextrusion. via www.energy-xprt.com

The transcription text of the video: "Let's Make Biogas from Straw" follows:

Video Transcription

Let's Make Biogas from Straw Not Field Crops.

Around 30 million tonnes of cereal straw are produced in Germany annually.

It has been estimated that 8 to 13 million tonnes of this could be used sustainably for different energetic paths of utilization.

Large quantities of straw are also produced in the UK, and throughout temperate climate regions globally.

Straw is one of the agricultural residues with the largest untapped potential for use as a biomass feed for biogas.

But, so far here has been only limited use of the energy in straw and what has been used has been based on thermal recovery, such as by pelletizing straw for domestic heating.

The disadvantages of this are the extremely large storage capacity needed for the dry material, as well as the high CO2 emissions from transport and processing.

In contrast, the use of straw in anaerobic digestion seems sensible.

The nutrients and organic matter, which was not converted into biogas in the fermentation process, are available again as a high quality digestate after fermentation, with the resulting digestate available to sustain this as a cycle by, its use as a crop fertilizer.

But there is a problem with this. Straw has a very high content of lignocelluloses and a low portion of readily fermentable materials.

During the fermentation process this causes very long digestion times and a low biogas yield.

Also, straw tends to float in the digester, even after being shredded.

Unwanted floating layers can then easily become a mixing problem, again reducing biogas production.

While some digester mixers might be able to cope, the mixing energy used reduces the remaining energy which can be sold.

A Solution to Low Straw Biogas Yields

One German company has devised a solution which they call Bioextrusion®.

The treatment (extrusion) of the straw has 3 beneficial effects:

1 - It reduces the particle size (fibre length) for reduced viscosity and easier mixing.

2 - The lignocellulosic structure is partially destroyed and,

3 - At the same time, the absorptive capacity of the straw increases, and the floating behavior of straw fibers inside the fermenter is much reduced.

After Bioextrusion® the straw is described as spreading almost perfectly in the operating volume of the fermenter.

Straw substrate which is modified by Bioextrusion® is then suitable for wet-fermentation in the standard CSTR process.

On arable farms Bioextrusion® may also be used to raise biogas output from other crop residues such as maize.

Want to know more?

Visit their article about Rika Biogas Technologies at: www.bioextruder.co.uk

Phone: +44 (0)1746 714 704


Friday, June 28, 2019

Ultrasound Disintegration: A Definition for Biogas Plants and WWTPs


Ultrasound Disintegration Meaning


Ultrasound Disintegration means the breakdown of biogenic sludge into minute particles by external forces.

The resulting increase in surface area causes an acceleration of the organic breakdown process, and thereby results in an increased biogas yield.

For the full article we wrote on this subject visit: https://anaerobic-digestion.com/how-ultrasonic-disintegration-of-sewage-sludge/

In addition, the release of exo-enzymes from the external cell layer increases the enzyme activity in the digester.

In ultrasonic disintegration, the electrical oscillations created by a generator are transformed by a converter (sonic transducer) into mechanical vibrations.

These vibrations are transferred into the surrounding medium by means of a device known as a sonotrode.

Following the rhythm of the ultrasonic frequency, they cause high alternating positive and negative pressure phases, depending on whether the oscillator is expanding or contracting at the time.

During the negative pressure phase, microscopical cavities are formed in the liquid exposed to the ultrasonics; these then collapse in the subsequent positive pressure phase. This process is known as cavitation.

From the implosion, which releases high pressures and temperatures, strong impact and shear forces occur in the area immediately around the cavities, and these cause the surrounding micro-organisms to disintegrate.

Text Source: MCC Process Technology

For more information visit www.mccprotec.com

Watch this video on YouTube here: https://youtu.be/E1z_4_aW9Rc

Friday, May 31, 2019

Working of a Biogas Plant - Wet AD Biodigesters Features Advantages and ...



Wet Process Biodigesters Explained with Pros and Cons

We went back to basics to explain how biodigesters work and their benefits and problems in this video and in the article below. We hope you find it a useful combination of video presentation and reading material.

Introduction

 Biodigesters use the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions to facilitate the extraction of the resulting biogas for use as energy.

The biodigester has an entrance for the organic material, a space for its decomposition, an outlet with control valve for the gas (biogas), and an outlet for the material already processed (digestate).

Necessary conditions for biodigestion 

Temperature is very important for the production of biogas, since the microorganisms that carry out biodigestion reduce their activity outside these temperatures.

The temperature in the digestive chamber must be between 20º C and 60º C. To optimize the production time it is desirable to maintain a temperature between 30º C and 35º C.

The level of acidity determines how the fermentation of the organic material unfolds.

The pH of the material must have a value between 6.5 and 7.5.

Being outside this neutral range, organic matter runs the risk of rotting, as the relative activity of the wrong microorganisms increases. This usually produces a very unpleasant odor.

The container must be perfectly sealed to prevent oxygen from entering and thus have an adequate airtight seal.

The most commonly used materials to produce biogas are  manure, from cows, horses, pigs and human sources.

However, almost all organic materials can also be used.

To achieve efficient decomposition, the organic matter must be in digestible sizes, because as ageneral rule, the faster the production of biogas the smaller the particle size.

The organic matter fed into the biogas plant must at all times have a balance of carbon and nitrogen.

Structure of a biodigester

There are many variations in the design of the biodigester.

Some elements that are commonly incorporated are:

Fermentation Chamber: The space where biomass is stored during the decomposition process.
Gas storage chamber: The space where the biogas accumulates before being extracted.

Loading point for adjusting the particle size and a funnel for adjustment of the water content: This is the entrance where the biomass is added to the digester tank (biodigester).

Pile of discharge: The output, serves to remove waste that are spent and are no longer useful for biogas, but can be used as fertilizer (digestate).

Agitator: Displace the residues that are in the bottom up of the biodigester to take advantage of all the biomass.

Gas pipe: The output of biogas. It can be connected directly to a stove or it can be transported by means of the same pipe to its place of use.

Advantages of Biodigesters 

The anaerobic digestion process or fermentation process which takes place in all biodigesters, is a renewable and sustainable energy source. Taking advantage of the natural production of biogas reduces the need to use non-renewable energy. This in turn helps reduce climate change, by minimizing the output of greenhouse gases.

It is possible to use secondary products as fertilizer or fertilizer. It avoids the use of local firewood, thus reducing the pressure on forest resources. Encourages sustainable development. Redirect and take advantage of the greenhouse gases produced by landfills and industrial farms, which reduces the carbon footprint of these establishments and decreases their contribution to climate change.

It can help governments comply with national and international responsibilities to reduce the emission of carbon into earth's atmosphere.

It prevents the contamination of aquifers.

Creates specialized jobs.

Creates the possibility of farmers and many other businesses that end-up creating a lot of organic waste matter (biomass) developing a cutting-edge and sustainable "green" project.

Disadvantages, risks and special considerations 

Ideally, the location should be close to where the biomass is collected.

Featured image for the article and video about the Working of a Wet Biodigester Biogas Plant.
The temperature of the digestion chamber must be maintained between 20º C and 60º C; Creating such temperatures may limit its use in cold places.

Biogas contains a byproduct called hydrogen sulfate, which is a corrosive and toxic gas for humans.

As with any other combustible gas, there is a risk of explosion or fire due to malfunction, maintenance or safety.

Biogas contains varying amounts of a byproduct called hydrogen sulfide, which is a corrosive and toxic gas at even very low concentrations for humans.

As with any other combustible gas, there is a risk of explosion or fire due to malfunction, maintenance or safety.

Source: Aboutespanol

Other names for a biodigester are: Anaerobic digester, anaerobic reactor, biological reactor.

Juan Gonzalo Angel Restrepo www.tvagro.tv

Creative Commons video footage used.

Friday, May 03, 2019

CCC Net Zero Report - The United Kingdom Anaerobic Digestion Industry Re...




ADBA Press Release:

United Kingdom AD Industry Responds to CCC Net Zero Report

Responding to the publication of the Committee on Climate Change's (CCC's) new report calling for the UK to set a net-zero target for 2050, Charlotte Morton, Chief Executive of the Anaerobic Digestion & Bioresources Association, said:

"The UK's anaerobic digestion (AD) industry fully supports the Committee on Climate Change's call for net zero emissions by 2050, which is a vital target to ensure we avoid the worst effects of climate change. 

"By converting organic wastes and crops into renewable heat and power, clean transport fuel, and soil-restoring natural fertiliser, AD has already reduced the UK's greenhouse gas emissions by 1% and has the potential to reduce them by as much as 5% if the industry meets its full potential. Crucially, AD reduces emissions from hard-to-decarbonise sectors such as heat, transport, and agriculture, as well as from the power sector and from waste. 

"As a technology-ready solution that can tackle climate change right across the economy, it's vital that government recognises and rewards the many benefits of AD so it can make the maximum contribution to decarbonisation at speed and scale. 

"We therefore also support the CCC's call for a new regulatory and support framework for low-carbon heating (where biomethane from AD can make an important contribution) to address the current million-pound funding gap." 

PR Ends

Reactions Across the Web to the CCC Net Zero Report

Image shows thumbnail for the CCC Net Zero Report ADBA response.
There has been a welcome response from numerous groups to the CCC’s report with the top line call for the immediate enshrining into law of a national net zero by 2050 target to be put forward by the government.
However, the report does also note that some home nations are currently better equipped to deliver more rapid decarbonisation than others. Scotland, for example, is encouraged by the CCC to target net-zero emissions by 2045 – due to a greater potential to depollute its economy compared to the rest of the UK – whereas Wales should target a 95% reduction in emissions by 2050 (from the same 1990 baseline).

#climaterush #EarthDay #ClimateAction #GreenWave

Friday, April 26, 2019

Call for CfD Scheme for Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion in the UK



Renewable Energy CfD Scheme Call

Small-Scale UK Renewable Energy CfD Scheme Called for.

On the day that the UK didn’t leave Europe, trade association ADBA called for a Contracts for Difference (CfD) scheme for Small-scale Renewable Energy including biogas.


ADBA also calls for AD not to be excluded from future CfD auctions.


The trade body for the UK’s anaerobic digestion industry calls on the government to introduce a bespoke low-carbon Contracts for Difference  scheme to support small-scale renewable technologies.


ADBA did this on 29 March 2019, the day the Feed-In Tariff subsidy was ended by the UK government.


AD plants generate renewable electricity, heat, and natural fertilizer by treating organic wastes and energy crops. They also offer a range of other benefits including greenhouse gas mitigation from avoided waste emissions, income diversification for farmers, and energy and fertilizer supply security.


The UK’s AD industry currently has capacity to power 1.2 million households, offering flexible, baseload power, but has the potential to generate far more, with the right support.


“Beyond this levelling of the playing field with the big generators, they are calling on government to develop a bespoke, small-scale, low-carbon CfD auction mechanism to encourage competition in the small-scale sector and recognize the additionality that AD can provide in the form of greenhouse gas mitigation, agricultural diversification, and energy and food security.


Based Upon: ADBA Press Release.

Biogas Plant in Balcony, Indian Man Slashes LPG Bill by Half! and More!

Recently we wrote a report about the state of anaerobic digestion plant and biogas development in India. We noted that at national government level there was very little indication of any top-level awareness of the great potential for the betterment in India, available from biogas technology.

We said that this was disappointing because once India led in biogas. The was a growing number of small rural biogas plants and its production was having many spin-off advantages.

The same is not true in some parts of India where a number of people are developing their own biogas plant systems and helping those around them to join in with the advantages of anaerobic digestion. This, we think you will agree is amply demonstrated in the following article extracts:

1 - Jharkhand Man Installs Biogas Plant in Balcony, Slashes LPG Bill by Half!

Able to serve a family for four years, the entire portable structure cost him less than Rs 10,000 and took a few hours to assemble. No wonder he is the talk of his neighbourhood now!

Almost 160 years ago, the first successful biogas generation plant was established in Mumbai, India. Since then, approximately five million biogas plants cater to domestic needs like water heating and cooking.

Contrary to this, various countries, especially Germany, have been efficiently harnessing its benefits in other sectors.

“Having been the forerunners, we should have led ahead of all in ushering the biogas revolution, not the European countries like Germany, that have become forerunners of biogas utilisation, both in domestic and public spheres,” said a senior corporate executive, while speaking to The Better India.

Based in Jamshedpur, this executive, Gaurav Anand, has led the movement by becoming the first man in the steel city to build a biogas plant small enough to fit into his apartment’s balcony!

Photo Source: Tatasphere

Not only has it slashed his monthly expenditure on LPG, but has also rewarded him with rich slurry compost that makes his garden bloom.  via Jharkha

2 - Patna Girl Builds Biogas Plants, Provides Electricity to Poor Farmers!

City born and bred she may be, yet Akansha Singh was aware of the economic and social inequalities that exist within India. But it wasn’t until she got to the ground and observed first-hand did she realise the scale of the issue.

After completing her Masters in Social Entrepreneurship from the Tata Institute of Social Sciences (TISS) in 2014, Akansha had set out to Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh as part of an internship.

She was 24 at the time.

“That was a devastating eye-opener for me. The two weeks that I was there, I observed no households had toilets neither did they have any proper power supply. Which meant, the women had to cook food before nightfall as their farmer husbands finished their farming activities by that time. One thing that had particularly affected me was that these families consumed their meals cold because they had to finish preparing dinner while there was still natural light,” says Akansha to The Better India.
During this period, she noticed many social and environmental issues in the region. The women were still cooking using cow dung cakes, and the entire family was inhaling hazardous smoke regularly.

Finally, after months of convincing and explaining to them the many benefits of the project, the villagers yielded, and Akansha began looking for land to build the plant.

“Fortunately, a person from another community volunteered and donated a patch of land for the project. It is remarkable as caste system is much prevalent in the region, but this kind individual wanted the underprivileged community to lead better and empowered lives. From there, our journey started,” she says.

Today, they have two biogas plants in Samastipur; one with 2-hour bioelectricity capacity while the other supplies power for four hours.

Swayambhu received its initial funding from DBS Bank, Singapore. Her project was also aided partly by the beneficiaries and mostly by both government and non-government agencies.

“There has been a visible change in these areas. After seeing how electricity has brightened up their lives, the beneficiaries have become truly committed to the cause and pay charges without fail. Also, ever since they have ditched chemical pesticides and fertilisers for the organic manure from the plant, they have been saving a considerable amount of money as well as observed better yield. Our solution has impacted in multiple folds,” 
Akansha adds.

In addition to community biogas plants, they have also worked on individual plants for bioelectricity, including one in collaboration with students of IIT Patna.
Completion of a biogas plant.

via Electricity to Poor Farmers!

A Biogas Startup By An IIT-Bombay Alumnus Aims To Fight Air Pollution And Manage Waste


New Delhi: 34-year-old Priyadarshan Sahasrabuddhe, a Pune based engineer is trying to provide a solution for two of the biggest environmental problems facing India – air pollution and burgeoning waste pile ups. 

The IIT-Bombay alumnus has launched a technology to produce cooking gas fuel by repurposing the organic-waste produced in the kitchen and at the same time reducing the dependence on fossil fuels. In 2017 he created ‘Vaayu’, a biofuel plant that can be easily installed at homes to convert carbohydrates from organic waste into methane gas which can be used for cooking and heating purposes.

“I was working at my parent’s firm about two years ago and I noticed that every day after lunch, a lot of leftover food used to end up in the garbage bins. Watching all that food go waste, I thought of trying composting to manage that waste. But it was not enough. On researching more, I came to know about biofuels. I found that not only will it help in managing organic waste, it will also help in reducing our dependence on non-renewable sources like LPG,” 
said Mr. Sahasrabuddhe.

Also Read: Mumbai Civic Body Produces Cooking Gas From Waste For Its Canteen In N-Ward

“Waste segregation is the key here. Initially, when I started advocating for green living, I used to go to each house in my locality every morning to ask them to segregate their waste. There were days when I myself used to pick organic waste from the nearby garbage dumps. But gradually when my neighbours started to understand ‘Vaayu’, they started segregating and I get almost 8- 10 kgs of organic waste at my doorstep every day,” 
said the engineer turned innovator.

After a long period of testing of the device at his home and reducing his dependence on LPG to a significant extent, Mr. Sahasrabuddhe pushed others in his family, neighbours, and friends to start using this innovation. Till date his startup has done 135 installations in Pune, Sangli, Aurangabad, Umarkhed (District Yavatmal), Palghar, Nashik and Hyderabad. These installations together are managing up to two tons of food waste per day and saving about 900 LPG cylinders worth fuel per year.

How Does ‘Vaayu’ Work?

‘Vaayu’ is a domestic bio-gas machine which can be installed in the house, in the gallery, on the terrace or in the garden. The apparatus is fuelled by the waste generated in the kitchen which gets broken down by bacterial action known as Anaerobic Bacterial Digestion. Through this process, the carbon dioxide captured inside the organic waste during photosynthesis is divided into methane gas and liquid. The gas is stored in the balloon kind of a structure called the cylinder which is connected to the stovepipe. The cooking experience is exactly the same as that of a regular LPG or piped CNG (Compressed Natural Gas). The slurry generated in this process is high on nutrients and can be utilised as manure for the plants in the house.

The regular size ‘Vaayu’ has a container of two kg capacity in which the organic waste is put. A single two kg container, ‘Vaayu’ produces 200 litres of biogas within 24 hours which is 40 minutes of cooking gas per day saving up to three LPG cylinders per year. The capacity of the device can be increased by adding the containers.

The device requires cleaning up once in six months. The solid undigested material removed is fibrous and can be taken back to the garden as manure. Currently, the cost of installing ‘Vaayu’ is Rs. 20,000 but the operating cost is zero. There is no need of power to run ‘Vaayu’ as it operates on its own. Mr. Sahasrabuddhe is still working to improve the technology to make if more affordable.

Mr. Sahasrabuddhe has also started an informal community of like-minded nature enthusiasts who come up with innovative solutions and want to share them with others. The community, ‘Vaayu Mitra’, provides biofuel solutions according to the number of people residing in a house and encourage them to adopt a greener lifestyle. He says,

In my society, everyone segregates their own waste now. I and my friends are working also with waste collectors and are training them to operate biogas plants so that they become energy suppliers too. This increased value will help them earn better remuneration. via Waste Warriors

If you know of any further examples like these in India, please provide details by leaving a comment.

Wednesday, March 20, 2019

6 Biogas Analysis and Gas Quality Monitoring Equipment Suppliers EU



Biogas Equipment, a List of 6 Biogas Analysis and Gas Quality Monitoring Equipment Suppliers
Biogas analysis and maximizing the efficiency of anaerobic digestion plants is gaining more attention, as the anaerobic digestion industry matures.

The highest prices are only available for top quality biogas with a consistently high calorific value after upgrading (purification).

To do that operators need to pay close attention to the quality of the digester off-gas.

Thankfully, robust and low cost biogas analysis sensors are available from a number of manufacturers, for controlling the various biogas quality upgrading processes.

Many devices combine the functions of biogas flow measurement with quality monitoring systems for a wide variety of needs.

We found the following list of suppliers of Gas Analyzers for landfills and the biogas plant sector:

1. GEOTECH Gas Analysers for Landfills and the Biogas Sector.
2. Cameron Instruments – Multitec Biocontrol.
3. Union Instruments – Inca Biogas Analyzers.
4. Wilexa Energy – CSM Continuous Siloxane Monitors for Landfill Biogas.
5. Progeco – Biogas Analysis Equipment.
6. Avensys Solutions – Awiflex Biogas Analyzer.

Conclusion:

6 Biogas Analysis and Gas Quality Monitoring Equipment Suppliers
The need to continuously measure methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
can be joined with a need for analysis of the much lower low percentages of CO, H2S, N2, O2,  which can also be found in the biogas composition.

Thankfully, monitoring equipment has been developed to do what is needed.

For the full article go to:.
https://anaerobic-digestion.com/biogas-analysis

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Friday, March 15, 2019

Sanitary Benefits of Installing an Anaerobic Digester System

The most obvious sanitary benefit of installing an anaerobic digester system is the improvements to toilet facilities in the households. Throughout China and other developing countries, where no sewer system is in place, toilet facilities are in simple shacks.

The toilet is generally a slot in the floor with either a pit underneath or alternatively a trough running to a storage pit behind the building.

In the case of a pit toilet, the slurry in the pit is often literally moving with insect larvae, and in all cases the toilets are smelly and fly infested. For these reasons, toilets are generally located as far away from the other household buildings as practical.

Watch our video below for a contrasting example of what one biogas plant supplier has achieved in sanitary improvement, using a biogas digester:

Biogas Digester Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that can be used to compare the environmental impacts of different products throughout their entire life cycle (European Commission, 2010).

The LCA has been used to compare different biogas production technologies (Rehl and Muller, 2011; Poeschl et al., 2012a). Several studies have also focused on technologies for biogas production from manure and different co-substrates for manure (Hamelin et al., 2011; Rehl and Muller, 2011; De Vries et al., 2012; Poeschl et al., 2012a).

However, very few studies have focused on the vast number of small-scale biogas digesters being deployed in developing countries. Only one single study has been identified (Chen et al., 2012) and this study largely ignores the issues of CH4 leakage and release and nutrient recycling.

With the current UK calculating being done on the LCA impact of biogas production, it will soon become be easier to make comparisons with other fuels.

SimGas Biogas Systems

SimGas biogas systems are fully integrated farm solutions designed to reach millions of rural households in developing countries. Our systems enable rural households with livestock to use the manure from their livestock to generate clean fuel for cooking and organic fertiliser.

Digesters are arguably even better, though, when they're in poor or developing countries. According to the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, small-scale anaerobic digesters like the one Porter and Mazur want to build on Everest are commonly used in rural communities to meet heating and cooking needs. China, for example, has an estimated 8 million anaerobic digesters. Nepal - where the one in question would be built - already has 50,000.

Toilet Facilities in the Households with Biogas Plants

The most obvious sanitary benefit of installing an anaerobic digester system is the improvements to toilet facilities in the households. Throughout China and other developing countries, where no sewer system is in place, toilet facilities are in simple shacks. The toilet is generally a slot in the floor with either a pit underneath or alternatively a trough running to a storage pit behind the building. In the case of a pit toilet, the slurry in the pit is often literally moving with insect larvae, and in all cases the toilets are smelly and fly infested. For these reasons, toilets are generally located as far away from the other household buildings as practical.

Reasons to Try Aquaponics

The world today uses epic amounts of non-renewable resources. as we grow old, our backs tend to give senior citizens trouble. Gardening is hard on the back. Aquaponic systems can be designed to ensure you never have to bend over to plant or harvest. lower cholesterol.

Many organizations and countries around the world are seeking to find new sustainable ways to produce food due to the world food crisis. Hydroponic and aquaponic systems have plenty of benefits for developing countries and make use of he output from digestion, known as digestate.

Unfortunately, the digested may still contain some diseases, especially when the digestate has been output after the source has been recognized as including some animal by-products.

The control of pests and diseases of plants grown in aquaponic systems is a problem since pesticide use is clearly limited by the high sensitivity of water pollution which may be caused by it.

In general, published data indicate that a digestion time of 14 days at 35 C is effective in killing (99.9 per cent die-off rate) the enteric bacterial pathogens and the enteric group of viruses. However, the die-off rate for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and hookworm (Ancylostoma) is only 90 per cent, which is still high. In this context, biogas production would provide a public health benefit beyond that of any other treatment in managing the rural health environment of developing countries.

Energy Shortages in Developed Countries

Energy shortages in developed countries turned out to have an impact on developing countries such as Indonesia (Simamora, 2006). The declining of the reserve natural energy and the increasing of human needs for living force them to always make effort and innovate to solve their problem.

A Substitute for Fossil Fuel Based Household Energy

Thumbnail image depicting the Sanitary Benefits of Installing an Anaerobic Digester System.

Any effort for a renewable substitute for fossil fuel based household energy is by developing biogas that have raw material from cattle manure. The biggest parts of Indonesia are rural area which have source income in form of integrated agriculture product, one of them is cattle, so the developing of Biogas is really potential. So far, Productivity and Socialization of Biogas energy in the countryside have not conferred maximal product outcomes.

Many developing countries, such as Colombia, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Vietnam, Cambodia, have promoted the low-cost biodigester technology aiming at reducing the production cost by using local materials and simplifying installation and operation (Botero and Preston 1987; Solarte 1995; Chater 1986; Sarwatt et al 1995; Soeurn 1994; Khan 1996).

The model used was a continuous-flow flexible tube biodigester based on the "red mud PVC" (Taiwan) bag design as described by Pound et al (1981) and later simplified by Preston and co-workers first in Ethiopia (Preston unpubl.), Colombia (Botero and Preston 1987) and later in Vietnam (Bui Xuan An et al 1994).

More than 7000 polyethylene biodigesters have been installed in Vietnam, mainly paid for by farmers (Bui Xuan An and Preston 1995).

Conclusion

Developing countries have struggled to supply stable forms of energy to many of their inhabitants.
According to the World Energy Outlook, approximately 80 percent of people without electricity live in rural areas in Sub-Saharan Africa and developing Asia.

With no other alternative for energy, many people already rely on biogas and struggle to efficiently transport and store it. The technology is therefore in a good position to be developed and extended.

Anaerobic Digestion Community Website