The biogas reactor within a biogas plant (anaerobic digestion plant) is the vessel or vessels in which anaerobic treatment technology produces two main products.
(a) a digested slurry (digestate) that can be used as a fertilizer, and
(b) biogas that can be used as an energy source.
Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide and other trace gases which can be converted to heat, electricity or light.
Small-scale Biogas ReactorsSmall-scale biogas reactors are typically designed to produce biogas at the household or community level in rural areas.
In most Small-scale biogas reactors the airtight reactors are buried in the ground and are filled with animal manure from the farm and house. Kitchen and garden wastes can also be added and toilets can directly be linked to the reactor for co-treatment of excreta.
Schematic of a small scale Biogas Reactor Large Commercial ScaleBiogas Reactors Although the process in large scale commercial biogas reactors is the same as in the small ones.
Large scale commercial biogas reactors vary from the digesters built to service a small farm (i. e. "small" in western terms) up to the digesters built to digest the sludge from a large sewage treatment works. In all cases the definition of the reactor is the same, although the majority of large scale biogas reactors are made from circular steel tanks, which are lagged for the necessary heat retention.
A More Detailed Alternative Definition for "What is a Biogas Reactor"A biogas reactor is an airtight chamber that facilitates the anaerobic degradation of blackwater, sludge, and/or biodegradable waste (e.g. animal manure, kitchen and garden wastes).
It also facilitates the collection of the biogas, a mixture of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) produced in the fermentation processes in the reactor. The gas forms in the slurry and collects at the top of the chamber, mixing the slurry as it rises.
The pressure exerted by the rising gas can be used to transport the gas to the collection vessel or directly to where it is going to be used. The digestate is rich in organics and nutrients, almost odourless and pathogens are partly inactivated.
Biogas Reactors Are Living Organisms: Operator Responses When Biogas Output DropsBiogas Reactors work well most of the time when the operator uses feedstocks with which the plant operator has experience, but when new feedstocks are introduced, or even when familiar feedstocks are used, the biogas quality and/ or quantity may drop. It is necessary to take action when the biological process shows signs of imbalance. In this context the operator has only a few options available at most AD plants.
The operator can reduce the feed rate, or cease feeding in which case the reactor may stabilise itself, dilute the biomass, or add fresh or degassed biomass to rectify an imbalance in reactor chemistry where the cause is known.
Biogas Reactor feeding changes are an important tool to correct reactor slowdowns, but it is difficult to give a precise recipe for doing it successfully.
Most biogas plants have, to a greater or lesser extent, been subjected to operational disturbances, and several plants have experienced that the process at worst may break completely.
Such collapse can have serious financial consequences for the plant, and Biogas Reactor chemistry problems are an issue that focuses the minds of all AD plant owning business men.
Downward drifts in biogas output, and even a collapse in the biogas produced in a biogas reactor, are often linked to the types of biomass that the plants are fed with, and unfortunately it has been found that a combination of manure and other organic waste of varying strengths and composition, can become a dangerous cocktail.
If there is a lot of protein and fat in the mixture in the reactor, it can cause high concentrations of ammonium and long chain fatty acids (LCFA) that may inhibit the process.
The best way to avoid such inhibitions is to have a thorough knowledge of the type of biomass that the plant is supplied, both in terms of the chemical composition and how the biomass breaks down in the plant.
In addition, it is important to accurately measure the different types of waste entering a biogas reactor, as well as detailed process monitoring is very important.
Unfortunately, it is far from always that the plants have the opportunity to feed consistently with the same types of feedstocks to provide the reactor with stable conditions.
The ability of the biogas plant operator to find consistent feedstocks are limited in number and size by the availability of materials, and the operators will therefore often be forced to mix.
Those biogas plant which are fed from feedstock produced through the operators own business activities (e.g. on-farm manure) have the best chance of ensuring consistent feedstock availability.
To provide a service for the disposal of organic (biomass) wastes for long-term clients makes the need to accept variations in the composition, quantity and delivery frequency of the different types of waste inevitable.
This means that the plants may be forced to supply a certain type of waste to the biogas reactors at a time when it may cause problems with the stability of the biological process. Finally, a complete monitoring of all process parameters is a time-consuming and expensive solution, which means that monitoring at most plants is inadequate.
As a consequence of these constraints, various drift disturbances occur at biogas plants. The question is therefore:
What can managers do to quickly restore the process when they detect a decline in gas production?At the Department of Environment and Resources at the Technical University of Denmark they have conducted a series of trials to restore the biogas process in laboratory reactors.
The experiments supported by the Energy Research Program were primarily based on dilution of the biomass with either water, manure or degassed biomass.
The process was inhibited by adding either ammonium or LCFA to four reactants with cattle gel.
he outcome of the different strategies as well as a description of the experiments are discussed below.
Ammonium Inhibition of Biogas ReactorsAfter inhibition with ammonium, it was found that the most effective method of recovery of the process was to replace half of the reactor content with degassed biomass or fresh cattle gel.
With that strategy, it took about six days to return to the original gas production, while it took 10-11 days if 50 percent water was added instead or the daily amount of manure was reduced.
After almost six days, a significant increase in gas production was recorded in the reactor, which added 50 percent fresh cattle gel.
Thus, throughout the recovery period, this reactor produced between 42 and 74 percent more gas than the other reactors, which is associated with the additional amount of organic material that the reactor was supplied in the form of fresh slurry.
However, one should also stick to the evolution of the oxygen level during the restoration, as it gives an indication of how stable the process is.
Here it was found that the increase in the acid level was somewhat higher by the addition of fresh manure than by the addition of degassed biomass.
Therefore,, much evidence suggests that the most effective and safe method of ammonium inhibition is a combined addition of manure and degassed biomass.
The worst approach is to do nothing and only add the daily amount of manure or dilute the biomass with water.
The supply of water provides a faster recovery than if it is not intervened, but on the other hand, this strategy leads to relatively low gas production.
The strongest increase in oxygen levels was recorded in the reactor where no intervention was taken, indicating that the process here was more affected than in the other reactors.